Selecting an Aptamer Against the RCAS1 Biomarker for a Novel Tool in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Cancer
RCAS1 (receptor-binding cancer antigen expressed on SiSo cells) is a protein expressed by the EBAG9 (estrogen receptor-binding fragment-associated gene 9) gene1. Overexpression of this biomarker has been identified to be present in nearly all gastric cancers2 and the degree of overexpression has been shown to be indicative of the prognosis in 14 different types of cancer. In addition to this, levels of RCAS1 have been linked to "clinicopathological parameters including the histological type of cancer, its differentiation, tumor size, clinical stage, [and] the depth of invasion..."3 RCAS1 is also a biologically active molecule. For example, in gastric cancers, it has been implicated to facilitate tumor cell evasion of the immune system via growth-inhibition and apoptosis-induction in lymphocytes expressing the receptor for the antigen3. Another role that has been associated with RCAS1 is remodeling of connective tissue4. The capability of remodeling connective tissue is an essential factor contributing to tumor malignancy and eventual metastasis - the ultimate cause of death in over 90% of cancers5.
1. Nakashima, Manabu, Kenzo Sonoda, and Takeshi Watanabe. "Inhibition of cell growth and induction of apoptotic cell death by the human tumor-associated antigen RCAS1." Nature Medicine. 5.8 (1999): 940. Web. 29 Aug. 2013.
2. Bohunicky, Brian, and Shaker Mousa. "Biosensors: the new wave in cancer diagnosis." Nanotechnology, Science and Applications. 2011.4 (2010): 4. Web. 29 Aug. 2013
3. Sonoda, Kenzo, Shingo Miyamoto, Manabu Nakashima, Norio Wake. "The Biological Role of the Unique Molecule RCAS1: A Bioactive Marker that Induces Connective Tissue Remodeling and Lymphocyte Apoptosis." Frontiers in Bioscience. 13 (2008): 1106-16. Web. 29 Aug. 2013.
4. Nakamura, Yuichi, Koichi Yamazaki, Satoshi Oizumi, Manabu Nakashima,Takeshi Watanabe, Hirotoshi Dosaka-Akita, and Masaharu Nishimura. "Expression of RCAS1 in human gastric carcinoma: A potential mechanism of immune escape." Cancer Science. 95.3 (2004): 260–265. Web. 29 Aug. 2013.
5. Cox, Thomas, and Janine Erler. "Remodeling and homeostasis of the extracellular matrix: implications for fibrotic diseases and cancer." Disease Models and Mechanisms. 4.2 (2011): 165-178. Web. 29 Aug. 2013.
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